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List of Jewish architects

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List of Jewish architects

This is a list of Jewish architects.








Philadelphia, USA) was a distinguished architect and educator. Germany, United Kingdom, USA. Germany-born



  • Marcel Iancu (1895–1984) was an architect, plastic artist, and art theorist. Romania
  • Benjamin Idelson (1911, Russian Empire – 1972, Israel) was a successful Israeli architect. Erez Israel. Russian Empire-born
  • Boris Iofan (Russian: Иофан, Борис Михайлович) (28 April 1891 – 1976) was a Soviet architect, known for his Stalinist architecture buildings. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Dmitry Iofan (1885, Odessa, Russian Empire – 1961, Moscow, USSR) (Russian: Иофан, Дмитрий Михайлович) was a Russian and Soviet architect. Russian Empire, Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Yevgeny Ioheles (1908, Moscow, Russian Empire – 1989, Moscow, USSR) (Russian: Иохелес, Евгений Львович) was a famous Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Garold Isakovich (7 November 1931, Moscow, USSR – 1992, Moscow, Russian Federation) (Russian: Исакович, Гарольд Григорьевич) was a distinguished Soviet architect, best known for his Lenin Memorial[12] design. Soviet Union
  • (c.1945, New York City, N.Y. – 1995, Los Angeles, CAFranklin D. Israel, an architect whose designs for private houses and offices for film production companies epitomized the creative ferment of contemporary Hollywood. USA


  • Alfred Jacobi (3 September 1950, Offenbach, Germany –) is a renowned German architect. Germany
  • Arne Emil Jacobsen usually known as Arne Jacobsen, (11 February 1902 – 24 March 1971) was a Danish architect and designer. Denmark
  • Ernst Abraham Jacobsson (Swedish) (16 August 1839 – 6 December 1905) was a Swedish architect. Sweden
  • Johann Eduard Jacobsthal (German) (17 September 1839 – 1 January 1902) was a German architect. Germany
  • (German) Hans Sigmund Jaretzki (26 June 1890, Berlin, Germany – 1956, London, United Kingdom) was a renowned German and British architect. Germany, United Kingdom
  • Lajos Jámbor (31 October 1869, Pest – 6 November 1955, Budapest), Hungary
  • Herman Jessor (c. 1895 – 8 April 1990), the architect of more than 40,000, union-sponsored, publicly assisted, cooperative housing units in New York City. USA. Russia-born
  • Kurt Jonas (1914, South Africa – 1942, Erez Israel) was a South Africa architect. South Africa
  • Rudolf Joseph (August 14, 1893, Pforzheim, Germany – January 17, 1963, New York, N.Y.)
  • Erik Josephson (Swedish) (7 March 1864 – 1929) was a Swedish architect. Sweden
  • Nathan S. Joseph (Nathan Solomon Joseph) (1834–1909) a British architect, philanthropist, social reformer, and Jewish communal leader.[13]



  • Bela Lajta (until 1907 Béla Leitersdorfer) (23 January 1873, Budapest, Austro-Hungarian Monarchy − 12 October 1920, Vienna, Austria) was a Hungarian architect. Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Hungary
  • Phyllis Lambert (Phyllis Barbara Lambert née Bronfman, born 24 January 1927) is a Canadian architect and philanthropist and member of the Bronfman family. Canada
  • Fritz Landauer (1883, Augsburg, Germany – 1968, London, United Kingdom) was an architect in Munich, Germany, before he was forced by Nazis to flee the country in 1937. Germany
  • Anton Lang (German) (1 August 1860, Vienna, Austria – 28 February 1940, Germany) was a German architect. Germany
  • Iosif Langbard (6 January (18), 1882, Belsk, Russian Empire – 3 January 1951, Leningrad, USSR) (Russian: Лангбард Иосиф Григорьевич) was a distinguished Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • Joseph de Lange (April 18, 1883, Amsterdam – January 28, 1948, Antwerp), Netherland
  • (Russian) Arkady Langman (1886, Kharkiv, Russian Empire – 1968, Moscow, USSR) (Russian: Лангман, Аркадий Яковлевич) was a Soviet architect, best known for his Council of People's Commissariats (now Duma), Moscow, building design. Soviet Union
  • Mimo. USA. Russia-born
  • Denys Lasdun Sir Denys Lasdun CH (8 September 1914 – 11 January 2001) was an eminent English architect of the 20th century. United Kingdom
  • Paul László (6 February 1900 – 27 March 1993), modern architect and interior designer whose work spanned eight decades and many countries. Germany, USA. Hungary-born
  • Siegfried Latté (1884, Thorn, Germany – 1938, Berlin, Germany) was a German architect and interior designer. Germany
  • Edgar M. Lazarus (6 June 1868 – 2 October 1939), in the Portland, Oregon area for more than 45 years, best known as the architect of the Vista House.[16] USA
  • Fred David Lebensold ((1917, Warsaw, Poland − at 30 July 1985, Kingston, Canada) was a Canadian architect and theater design consultant. Canada, Poland-born
  • Ödön Lechner (Pest, 27 August 1845 – Budapest, 10 June 1914) was a Hungarian architect, nicknamed the "Hungarian Gaudí". Hungary
  • (Russian) Aleksandr Leibfreid (3 October 1910, Kharkiv, Russian Empire – 26 April 2003, Dortmund, Germany) (Russian: Лейбфрейд, Александр Юрьевич) was a renowned Soviet architect and researcher. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Moisey Lerman (1905, Vitebsk, Russian Empire – 1993, Moscow, Russian Federation) (Russian: Лерман, Моисей Маркович) was a Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • Rafael Lerman (1936, Jerusalem, Israel –) is a prize-winning Israeli architect. Israel
  • Jaime Lerner (born 17 December 1937) is a renowned architect and urban planner. Brazil
  • Moritz Ernst Lesser (1882, Berlin, Germany – 1958, Lisbon, Portugal) was a German architect, forced by Nazis to flee the country. Germany, Portugal
  • (Hebrew)Aleksandr Levi (Hebrew: אלכסנדר לוי) (1883, Germany – 1943, Oświęcim/Auschwitz, Poland). Germany-born
  • Rino Levi (1901–1965) was a Brazilian modern architect. Brazil
  • (Russian) Zigfrid Levi (1860–1913) (Russian: Леви, Зигфрид (Григорий) Яковлевич) was a Russian architect. Russian Empire
  • Gino Levi-Montalcini (Italian) (1902, Milan, Italy – November 1974, Turin, Italy) was an Italian architect and designer. Italy
  • Jack Levin (architect)). USA
  • Leonid Levin (1936 –) (Russian: Левин, Леонид Менделевич) is a renowned Belarus architect. Soviet Union, Belarus
  • Yevgeny Levinson (19 October 1894, Odessa, Russian Empire – 21 March 1968, Leningrad, USSR) (Russian: Левинсон, Евгений Адольфович) was a Soviet architect, urban planner and teacher. Soviet Union
  • Efim Levitan (Russian)(31 December 1915, Elizavetgrad, Kherson province, Russian Empire — 22 September 2007, Volgograd, Russian Federation) was a Soviet /Russian architect. Soviet Union, Russian Federation
  • Edmond Lévy, France
  • Ludwig Levy (German) (April 18, 1854, Landau, Germany - November 30, 1907, Karlsruhe, Germany) was a German architect
  • William Alexander Levy (1909–1997), later William Alexander, was an American architect and interior designer. USA
  • Shlomo Liaskovsky (1903, Winterthur, Switzerland – after 1982, Argentina) was an Israeli and Argentinian architect. Erez Israel, Argentina. Switzerland-born
  • Daniel Libeskind (born 12 May 1946) is an American architect, artist, and set designer of Polish-Jewish descent. USA
  • (Russian) Vladimir Libson (1910, Vitebsk, Russian Empire – 1991, Moscow, USSR) (Russian: Либсон, Владимир Яковлевич) was an acclaimed Soviet architect and renovator. Soviet Union
  • Irina Lichtenberg (1958, Moscow, USSR –) (Russian: Ирина Лихтенберг) is a Soviet and Israeli architect and town planner. Soviet Union, Israel
  • (Russian) Yury Lifshits (1921, Krasnodar, USSR –) (Russian: Лифшиц, Юрий Владимирович) is a Soviet architect, best known for his industrial buildings design. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Viktor Lifshits (1924, USSR –) (Russian: Лифшиц, Виктор Исаакович) is a Soviet and Ukrainian architect and educator. Soviet Union, Ukraine
  • (Russian) Eleonora Likhtenberg (1925, Kharkiv, USSR –) (Russian: Лихтенберг, Элеонора Яковлевна) is a Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Yakov Likhtenberg (1899, Brest-Litovsk, Russian Empire – 1982, Moscow, USSR) (Russian: Лихтенберг, Яков Григорьевич) was an acclaimed Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Solomon Lisagor (1898, Moscow, Russian Empire – 27 March 1937, West Siberia, USSR) (Russian: Лисагор, Соломон Абрамович) was a prominent[17] Soviet architect, murdered by the KGB. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Aleksandr Lishnevsky (1868–1942) (Russian: Лишневский, Александр Львович) was a noted Russian and Soviet Art Nouveau and Neoclassical architect and artist. Russian Empire, Soviet Union
  • El Lissitzky (Russian: Ла́зарь Ма́ркович (Мордухóвич) Лиси́цкий) (23 November [O.S. November 11] 1890 – 30 December 1941), better known as El Lissitzky (Russian: Эль Лиси́цкий, Yiddish: על ליסיצקי), was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, typographer, polemicist, writer and architect. Soviet Union
  • Max Littmann (3 January 1862 – 20 September 1931) was a German architect. Germany
  • Avi Livay (1965, Israel –) is a renowned Israeli architect. Israel
  • Béla Löffler (1880, Budapest, Austro-Hungarian Monarchy – ?) was a noted Hungarian architect. Hungary
  • Samu Sándor Löffler (1877, Budapest, Austro-Hungarian Monarchy – ?) was a noted Hungarian architect. Hungary
  • (Russian) Liya Loyevskaya (1918, USSR –) (Russian: Лоевская, Лия Наумовна) was a renowned Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • Slavko Löwy (7 August 1904 – 1 April 1996) was well-known Croatian architect. Croatia
  • Berthold Lubetkin (Russian: Бертольд Романович Любеткин, 14 December 1901, Tbilisi, Russian Empire —23 October 1990, Bristol, United Kingdom) was a Russian émigré architect who pioneered modernist design in Britain in the 1930s.. United Kingdom. Russia-born
  • Rudolf Lubinski (also spelled Lubynski; 31 October 1873 – 27 March 1935) was one of the leading Art Nouveau Croatian architects. Croatia
  • Yehuda Lulka (1905, Vinnitsa, Russian Empire – 1980, Israel) was a renowned Israeli architect. Erez Israel. Russia-born
  • (Russian) Dmitry Lurie (1921, Cherikov, USSR – 1993, Moscow, Russian Federation) (Russian: Лурье, Дмитрий Ефимович) was a Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • Leopold Lustig (1889, Kattowitz (today Katowice, Poland) – 1980, Tel Aviv, Israel) was an architect in Dresden, Germany, who resumed his career in Erez Israel, after Nazis forced him to flee Germany in 1934. Germany, Erez Israel, Israel. Poland-born
  • (Russian) Inna Lyutomskaya (1925, Moscow, USSR –) (Russian: Лютомская, Инна Львовна) is a leading Soviet and Russian architect. Soviet Union



  • (German) Leo Nachtlicht (August 12, 1872, Bielitz, Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, later – Poland – 1942, Berlin, Germany) was a German architect, murdered by Nazis. Germany. Poland-born
  • Barbara A. Nadel, an architect specialized in health care and justice facilities, much in demand for her expertise on design for public and institutional building security [2]. USA
  • (Russian) Yury Naimark (1939, Kiev, USSR –) (Russian: Наймарк, Юрий Иосифович) is a Soviet and Ukrainian architect and artist. Soviet Union, Ukraine
  • Fritz Nathan (1891, Bingen am Rhein, Germany – 3 November 1960, New York, N.Y.) was one of the leading Jewish architects in Germany. Germany, USA
  • Joseph Neufeld (1898, Monastarjiska, Galizia, Austro-Hungarian Monarchy –) was a German, Israeli and American architect. Germany, Erez Israel, USA
  • Gustav Neustein (1880, Hammerstein (today Czarne, Poland) – 1963, New York, N.Y.) was a German architect before he fled Nazis, and settled in America. Germany. Poland-born
  • Richard Neutra (8 April 1892 – 16 April 1970) is considered one of modernism's most important architects. USA. Austria-born
  • Oscar Niemeyer Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho (born 15 December 1907) is a Brazilian architect specializing in international modern architecture. Brazil
  • (Russian) Aleksandr Nisselson (1856, Russian Empire – 1910, Russian Empire) (Russian: Ниссельсон, Александр Ефремович/Шахна-Шолом Хаймович) was a Russian architect. Russian Empire
  • Amnon Niv (Hebrew: אמנון ניב‎)‎, (23 February 1930 – 6 June 2011) an Israeli architect and urban designer. Israel
  • (Russian) Iosif Notkin (1928, USSR –) (Russian: Ноткин, Иосиф Исаакович) is a well known Soviet architect, renovator and writer. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Dr Feliks Novikov (1927, Baku, USSR –) (Russian: Новиков, Феликс Аронович) is a distnguished Soviet and Russian architect and writer. Soviet Union



  • David Palterer (14 May 1949) is an Italian, Israeli born architect, product designer. Italy
  • Ignacy Itzhak Palterer (1914 Kraków-1994 Haifa), was active in Poland Israel and Ghana .
  • Ephraim Henry Pavie (Hebrew:אפרים פאבי )(France 1947 - ) is a French-born architect who made aliyah to Israel in 1983, best known for his free shaped biomorphic architecture.Israel
  • Gyula Pártos (Putzmann) (1845–1916) was a Hungarian architect. Hungary
  • (Russian) Yury Paskevich (1931 – 6 September 2007, Kiev, Ukraine) (Russian: Паскевич, Юрий Абрамович) was a Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Iosif Patskin (1925, Moscow, USSR –) (Russian: Пацкин, Иосиф Григорьевич) is a Soviet and Russian architect. Soviet Union
  • Bruno Paul (19 January 1874 – 17 August 1968) was a German architect, illustrator, interior designer, and furniture designer.
  • Dan Peleg (1937, Poland –) is an Israeli architect. Israel. Poland-born
  • César Pelli (born October 12, 1926, in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina), is an Argentine American architect and the former dean of the Yale School of Architecture
  • (Russian) Yevsey Perchenkov (1929, Moscow, USSR –) (Russian: Перченков, Евсей Вульфович) is a leading Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • Alexandre Persitz (1910–1975) was a French architect and writer. France. Russian Empire-born
  • Nikolaus Pevsner (Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner) CBE, FBA (30 January 1902 – 18 August 1983) was a British scholar of history of art and, especially, of history of architecture. United Kingdom. Germany-born
  • Kurt Pick (1890, Lissa (today Leszno, Poland) – 1959, Tel Aviv, Israel) was a German architect and interior designer. Germany, Erez Israel, Israel. Poland-born
  • Doron Pinchas (Hebrew: דורון פנחס) is an Israeli architect and town planner. Israel
  • Jacob Pinkerfeld (1 April 1897, Przemysl, Galicia, Austro-Hungarian Monarchy – 23 September 1956, Israel) (Hebrew: יעקב פינקרפלד ) was an Israeli architect, murdered by Arab terrorists. Erez Israel, Israel. Russia-born
  • (Russian) Rada Podgornaya (1911, Zhitomir, Russian Empire – 1997, Kharkiv, Ukraine) (Russian: Подгорная, Рада Моисеевна) was a Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Noi Podgorny (30 October 1897, Zhitomir, Russian Empire – 1988, Kharkiv, USSR) (Russian: Подгорный, Ной Моисеевич) was a Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Anatoly Pokrass (1922, Baku, USSR –) (Russian: Покрасс, Анатолий Яковлевич) was a Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • James Polshek (born 1930, Akron, Ohio) is an American architect based in New York City. USA
  • Shlomo Ponaroff was a distinguished Israeli architect. Erez Israel
  • Joshua Prince-Ramus (born 11 August 1969) is an American architect. USA
  • (Russian) Boris Printsker (1910, Kiev, Russian Empire – 1988, Kiev, USSR) (Russian: Принцкер, Борис Абрамович) was a Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Igor Pritsker (26 March 1953, Kuibyshev, now – Samara, USSR –) (Russian: Притцкер, Игорь Аркадьевич) is a Soviet and Russian architect. Soviet Union, Russian Federation
  • (German) Martin Albrecht Punitzer (7 July 1889, Berlin, Germany – 7 October 1949, Santiago, Chile) was a German architect, forced by Nazis to flee the country. Germany, Chile


  • Zsigmond Quittner (13 February 1859 – 25 October 1918) was a Hungarian architect. Hungary


  • (Russian) Yury Rabayev (1927–1993) (Russian: Рабаев, Юрий Романович) was a Soviet and Russian architect. Soviet Union, Russian Federation
  • (Russian) Georgy Rabinovich (1925, Moscow, USSR –) (Russian: Рабинович, Георгий Исаакович) is a Soviet and Russian architect. Soviet Union, Russian Federation
  • (Russian) Mikhail Rabinovich (1954, USSR –) (Russian: Рабинович, Михаил Самуилович) is a leading Soviet and Ukrainian architect. Soviet Union, Ukraine
  • Michael Rachlis (1884, Moscow, Russian Empire – 1952, London, United Kingdom) was a successful Russian, German and British architect. Russian Empire, Germany, United Kingdom
  • (Russian) Ytzchak Rapoport (1901, Berdichev, Russian Empire – 1989, Israel) was an Erez Israel and Israel architect. Russian Empire-born. Erez Israel, Israel
  • Johanan (Yohanan) Ratner (1891, Odessa, Russian Empire – 1965, Haifa, Israel) was one of the leading Israeli architects-modernists in Erez Israel and a politician. Erez Israel, Israel. Russian Empire-born
  • Mark Ratner (Russian: Ратнер, Марк Моисеевич). Soviet Union
  • Heinrich Heinz Rau (1896–1965) was a German and Israeli architect. Germany, Erez Israel, Israel
  • Yaakov Rechter (14 June 1924, Tel Aviv, Erez Israel – 28 April 2001, kibbutz Shfayim, Israel) (Hebrew: יעקב רכטר) was a distinguished Israeli architect. Israel
  • Zeev Rechter (12 April 1899, Kovalevka, Kherson province Russian Empire – 18 December 1960, Tel Aviv, Israel) (Hebrew: זאב רכטר) was a leading Erez Israel and Israeli architect. Erez Israel, Israel. Russia-born
  • David Resnick, whose name is also sometimes spelled "Resnik" or "Reznik," a Brazilian-born Israeli architect born in 1923 is a winner of the Israel Prize for architecture whose works include Yad Kennedy and the Israel Goldstein Synagogue
  • (Russian) Abram Rivkin (1914, Starodub, Orel province, Russian Empire – 1993, Chelyabinsk, USSR) (Russian: Ривкин, Абрам Бенцианович) was a successful Soviet architect and educator. Soviet Union
  • Ernesto Nathan Rogers (16 March 1909 – 7 November 1969) was an Italian architect, writer and educator. Italy
  • CH Kt FRIBA FCSD (born 23 July 1933) is a British architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs. United Kingdom
  • William H. Rogers (Rodriguez) (18 February 1914 – 26 July 2008) was an English architect. United Kingdom
  • Harold Hersh le Roith (24 March 1905, Grahamstown, South Africa –) was an internationally acclaimed South African architect. South Africa
  • Ernö Román (1883–1959) was a Hungarian architect. Hungary
  • Miklós Román (1877–1952) was a Hungarian architect. Hungary
  • Eugene Rosenberg (1907, Moravia – 1990, United Kingdom) was a British architect. United Kingdom. Slovakia-born
  • Harry Rosenthal (1892, Posen (today Poznań, Poland) – 1966, London, United Kingdom) was a successful German architect, before he was forced by Nazis to flee the country. Germany, Erez Israel, United Kingdom. Poland-born
  • Sharon Rotbard (Hebrew שרון רוטברד) (born Tel Aviv, Israel, 2 October 1959),[20] is an Israeli architect,[21] publisher and author, senior lecturer at the Architecture department in the Bezalel Academy, Jerusalem. Israel
  • Emery Roth (born Róth Imre, 1871 – 20 August 1948), apprentice to Daniel Burnham and architect of classic Jazz Age New York apartment buildings and hotels, who founded firm known as the "Builder's Architects". USA. Austro-Hungary-born
  • Julian Roth (2 September 1902 – 9 December 1992) was an American architect. USA
  • Richard Roth, Jr. was an architect who ran the New York City based architecture firm “Emery, Roth and Sons” after his father's death. USA
  • (Russian) Mark Rozenberg (1939, Moscow, USSR –) (Russian: Розенберг, Марк Борисович) is a Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Zinovy Rozenfeld (1904, Chashniki, Vitebsk province, Russian Empire – 1991, Moscow, USSR) (Russian: Розенфельд, Зиновий Моисеевич) was a Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Konstantin Rozenshtein (1878–1951) (Russian: Розенштейн, Константин Исаевич) was a Russian and Soviet architect and developer. Russian Empire, Soviet Union
  • (Russian) Meer Rozenson (Russian: Розензон, Меер Давидович) was a Russian architect. Russian Empire
  • Yakov Rubanchik (1891, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire – 1948, Taganrog, USSR) (Russian: Рубанчик, Яков Осипович) was a Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • Boris Rubanenko (Russian: Рубаненко, Борис Рафаилович) (16 August (29), 1910, Samara, Russian Empire – 1985, Moscow, USSR) was a Soviet architect. Soviet Union
  • Carl Rubin (1899, Galicia, Austro-Hungarian Monarchy −1955, Tel Aviv, Israel) was an architect mostly active in the international style with projects focused around Tel Aviv, Israel. Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Erez Israel, Israel. Austro-Hungarian Monarchy-born
  • Bernard Rudofsky (19 April 1905, Suchdol nad Odru, Moravia, Austro-Hungarian Monarchy – 12 March 1988, New York City, USA)[22] was an American writer, architect, collector, teacher, designer, and social historian. USA. Moravian-born
  • (German) (Friedrich Abraham Ruhemann) Fritz Ruhemann (8 May 1891, Berlin, Germany – November 1982, London, United Kingdom) was a successful German and British architect. Germany, United Kingdom









  1. ^ The DiCamillo Companion
  2. ^ "Pierre Chareau Biography (1883–1950) Online Encyclopedia Article About Pierre Chareau Biography (1883–1950)". 
  3. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission: Tweed Copurthouse, 16 October 1984
  4. ^ Peter Eisenman, Great Buildings Online. Accessed 19 September 2008.
  5. ^ ”Obituaries: United States,” American Jewish Yearbook, 2006, pp. 712–13 (New York: The American Jewish Committee, 2006).
  6. ^ "Emanuele Fiano – PD" (in Italian). Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  7. ^ Kunst im Exil in Grossbritannien 1933–1945: eine Ausstellung der Neuen Gesellschaft für Bildende Kunst in den Räumen der Orangerie des Schlosses Charlottenburg vom 10.1.-23 February 1986, Neue Gesellschaft für bildende Kunst, Berlin: Frölich & Kaufmann, 1986, ISBN 978-3-88725-218-2, p. 170.
  8. ^ Fränkel (Frankel), Rudolf, Deutschsprachige Architekten im Exil, 1933–1945, Universität Karlsruhe, 18 January 2008 (German) gives his deathplace as Cincinnati.
  9. ^ "Frank Gehry clears the air", Globe and Mail, 28 July 2010
  10. ^ Ezra Gordon Obituary
  11. ^ a b An article on 890 West End Avenue Building
  12. ^ (Russian)A history of creating the Lenin Memorial
  13. ^
  14. ^ Jewel Stern, John A. Stuart, Ely Jacques Kahn, Architect: Beaux-arts to Modernism in New York, Norton, 2006, ISBN 0-393-73114-6
  15. ^ Richard Kaufmann
  16. ^ Ritz, Richard Ellison (2002). "Lazarus, Edgar M.". Architects of Oregon: a biographical dictionary of architects deceased – 19th and 20th centuries. Portland, Oregon: Lair Hill publishing. pp. 247–248.  
  17. ^ Personal Scrapbook of Constructivist Architect Solomon Lisagor
  18. ^ Yehuda Magidovitch
  19. ^ "Eric Owen Moss wants to piece together L.A.'s fragments". The Los Angeles Times, Scott Timberg, 2 August 2009. 2 August 2009. 
  20. ^ "Sharon Rotbard". Witte de With. Retrieved 26 December 2010. 
  21. ^ Riding, Alan (10 August 2002). "Are Politics Built Into Architecture?".  
  22. ^ "Bernard Rudofsky, 82, Architect And 'Outspoken' Social Analyst," By MAURA REYNOLDS, the New York Times, 13 March 1988
  23. ^ "Edward Salomons". Dictionary of Scottish Architects. Retrieved 14 January 2009. 
  24. ^
  25. ^ Alfred Zucker
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